Seed orchards in Ukraine: past, present and prospects for the future

Hayda Yuriy , Los Svitlana , Yatsyk Roman , Tereshchenko Larisa , Shlonchak Grygoriy , Mytrochenko Valentyna , Neyko Ihor , Samodai Viacheslav , Smashnyuk Ludmila , Klisz Marcin , Mohytych Vasyl
Ternopil National Economic University, Lvivska 11, 46400Ternopil, Ukraine, phone: +380 972 283 534 , Ukrainian Research Institute of Forestry and Forest Melioration named after G.М. Vysotsky, Pushkinska 86, 61024Kharkiv, Ukraine , Ukrainian Research Institute for Mountain Forestry after P.S. Pasternak, Mykhaila Hrushevskoho 31, 76018Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine , Forest Research Institute, Department of Silviculture and Genetics of Forest Trees, Sękocin Stary, Braci Leśnej 3, 05-090Raszyn, Poland
The seed orchards (SO) serve possibilities to collect seeds from the selected genotypes or to create artificial population throughout the controlled crossing of the target genotypes. Therefore, the seed material obtained from the clonal and seedling seed orchards offers unique opportunity to improve the genetic value of seeds. Thus, the seed orchards are considered as an important part of the forest seed base being the key object for both modern forestry and forestry research. This paper outlines the forest breeding activities associated with the seed production in the seed orchards in Ukraine over the last 70 years. During this period, the different aspects related to the establishment and management of the seed orchard were studied. In these processes, many failures had occurred, their causes and consequences were described. These main breeding activities were reported considering plain and mountain regions of Ukraine as well as specific aspects of the reproduction of the main forest tree species. As of 2019, the total area of the clonal seed orchards (CSO) reached 1040.3 ha, while seedling seed orchards (SSO) only 273.7 ha. The results of research on the growth, reproductive development, the morphology of the plus trees clones in the SO were generalized. The article on the current problems and challenges for Ukrainian forestry mainly related to forest tree breeding and there was also focus on forest seed industry. For the main forest trees species (Scots pine, English oak and other), targeted breeding programs should be developed. It is relevant to create the genetic bank of the forest seeds.
Folia Forestalia Polonica: Series A - Forestry