Background: Different approaches to surgical treatment of portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) have been advocated. This study investigated the outcomes of different surgical approaches in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with PVTT. Methods: We reviewed prospectively collected data for all patients who underwent hepatectomy for HCC at our hospital between December 1989 and December 2010. Patients were excluded from analysis if they had extrahepatic disease, PVTT reaching the level of the superior mesenteric vein, or hepatectomy with a positive resection margin. The remaining patients were divided into three groups for comparison: group 1, with ipsilateral PVTT resected in a hepatectomy; group 2, with PVTT extending to or beyond the portal vein bifurcation, treated by en bloc resection followed by portal vein reconstruction; group 3, with PVTT extending to or beyond the portal vein bifurcation, treated by thrombectomy. Results: A total of 88 patients, with a median age of 54 years, were included in the analysis. Group 2 patients were younger, with a median age of 43.5 years versus 57 in group 1 and 49 in group 3 (p = 0.017). Group 1 patients had higher preoperative serum alpha-fetoprotein levels, with a median of 8,493 ng/mL versus 63.25 in group 2 and 355 in group 3 (p = 0.004), and shorter operation time, with a median of 467.5 min versus 663.5 in group 2 and 753 in group 3 (p = 0.018). No patient had thrombus in the main portal vein. Two (2.8 %) hospital deaths occurred in group 1 and one (10 %) in group 2, but none in group 3 (p = 0.440). The rates of complication in groups 1, 2, and 3 were 31.9, 50.0, and 71.4 %, respectively (p = 0.079). The median overall survival durations were 10.91, 9.4, and 8.58 months, respectively (p = 0.962), and the median disease-free survival durations were 4.21, 3.78, and 1.51 months, respectively (p = 0.363). The groups also had similar patterns of disease recurrence (intrahepatic: 33.8 vs. 28.6 vs. 40.0 %; extrahepatic: 16.9 vs. 14.3 vs. 0 %; both: 28.2 vs. 42.9 vs. 40.0 %; no recurrence: 21.1 vs. 14.3 vs. 20.0 %; p = 0.836). Conclusions: The three approaches have similar outcomes in terms of survival, complication, and recurrence. Effective adjuvant treatments need to be developed to counteract the high incidence of recurrence. © 2013 Société Internationale de Chirurgie.
Kenneth siu ho Chok Tan to Cheung See ching Chan Ronnie Poon 范上达 Chung mau Lo
World Journal of Surgery
Background. Liver is the commonest site for metastasis in patients with neuroendocrine tumour (NET). A vast majority of treatment strategies including liver directed nonsurgical therapy, liver directed surgical therapy, and nonliver directed therapy have been proposed. In this study we aim to investigate the outcome of liver resection in neuroendocrine tumour liver metastases (NELM). Method. 293 patients had hepatectomy for liver metastasis in our hospital between June 1996 and December 2010. Twelve patients were diagnosed to have NET in their final pathology and their data were reviewed. Results. The median ages of the patients were 48.5 years (range 20-71 years). Eight of the patients received major hepatectomy. Four patients received minor hepatectomy. The median operation time was 418 minutes (range 195-660 minutes). The median tumor size was 8.75 cm (range 0.9-21 cm). There was no hospital mortality. The overall one-year and three-year survivals were 91.7% and 55.6%. The one-year and three-year disease-free survivals were 33.3% and 16.7%. Conclusion. Hepatectomy is an effective and safe treatment for NELM. Reasonable outcome on long term overall survival and disease-free survival can be achieved in this group of patients with a low morbidity rate. © 2014 Tan To Cheung et al.
Tan to Cheung Kenneth siu ho Chok Albert chi yan Chan Tsang Simon Dai Jeff W. C. Brian Lang Thomas chung cheung Yau See ching Chan Ronnie Poon 范上达 Chung mau Lo
The Scientific World Journal
Elucidating the molecular basis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is crucial to developing targeted diagnostics and therapies for this deadly disease. The landscape of somatic genomic rearrangements (GRs), which can lead to oncogenic gene fusions, remains poorly characterized in HCC. We have predicted 4314 GRs including large-scale insertions, deletions, inversions and translocations based on the whole-genome sequencing data for 88 primary HCC tumor/non-tumor tissues. We identified chromothripsis in 5 HCC genomes (5.7%) recurrently affecting chromosomal arms 1q and 8q. Albumin ( ALB) was found to harbor GRs, deactivating mutations and deletions in 10% of cohort. Integrative analysis identified a pattern of paired intra-chromosomal translocations flanking focal amplifications and asymmetrical patterns of copy number variation flanking breakpoints of translocations. Furthermore, we predicted 260 gene fusions which frequently result in aberrant over-expression of the 3' genes in tumors and validated 18 gene fusions, including recurrent fusion (2/88) of ABCB11 and LRP2. © 2014 unknown.
Fernandez-Banet Julio Nikki pui yue Lee Chan Kin Tak Gao Huan Xiao Liu Wingkin Sung Tan Winnie 范上达 Ronnie Poon Li Shiyong Ching Keith A. Rejto Paul A. Mao Mao Kan Zhengyan
Background & Aims: High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation is a non-invasive treatment for unresectable hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), but long-term survival analysis is lacking. This study was to analyse its outcome compared to that of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). Methods: From October 2003 to September 2010, 113 patients received HIFU ablation as a treatment of HCCs at our hospital. Twenty-six patients had HCCs sized 3-8 cm. Fifty-two patients with matched tumour characteristics having TACE as primary treatment were selected for comparison. Short-term outcome and long-term survival were analysed. Results: In the HIFU group (n = 26), 46 tumours were ablated. The median age of the patients was 69 (49-84) years. The median tumour size was 4.2 (3-8) cm. In the TACE group (n = 52), the median age of the patients was 67 (44-84) years. The median tumour size was 4.8 (3-8) cm. There was no hospital mortality in any of the groups. In the HIFU group, the rates of complete tumour response, partial tumour response, stable disease and progressive disease were 50%, 7.7%, 25.6% and 7.7% respectively, according to the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours. The TACE group had the corresponding rates at 0%, 21.2%, 63.5% and 15.4% respectively (P < 0.0001). The 1-year, 3-year and 5-year survival rates were 84.6%, 49.2% and 32.3% respectively, in the HIFU group and 69.2%, 29.8% and 2.3% respectively, in the TACE group (P = 0.001). Conclusion: HIFU ablation is a safe and effective method for unresectable HCCs. A survival benefit is observed over sole TACE. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Tan to Cheung Ronnie Poon Jenkins Caroline R. Chu Ferdinand S. K. Kenneth siu ho Chok Albert chi yan Chan Tsang Simon Dai Wing Chiu Thomas chung cheung Yau See ching Chan 范上达 Chung mau Lo
Objectives There is controversy over whether hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) should be primarily treated with living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) if liver resection (LR) can be effective. This retrospective study was conducted to compare survival outcomes in patients treated with either modality for solitary HCC measuring ≤8 cm in diameter. Methods Outcomes in patients with solitary HCC primarily treated by LDLT were analysed. Patients with solitary HCC of similar sizes with or without microvascular invasion primarily treated with LR were selected at a ratio of 6 : 1 for comparison. Results In-hospital mortality amounted to 0% and 1.3% in the LDLT (n = 50) and LR (n = 300) groups, respectively (P = 0.918). Complication rates were 34% and 20% in the LDLT and LR groups, respectively (P = 0.027). Rates of 1-, 3-, 5- and 10-year overall survival were 98%, 94%, 89% and 83%, respectively, in the LDLT group and 95%, 85%, 76% and 56%, respectively, in the LR group (P = 0.013). Rates of 1-, 3-, 5- and 10-year disease-free survival were 96%, 90%, 87% and 81%, respectively, in the LDLT group and 81%, 64%, 57% and 40%, respectively, in the LR group (P < 0.0001). Conclusions Living donor liver transplantation surpassed LR in survival outcomes, achieving a 10-year overall survival rate 1.5 times as high and a 10-year disease-free survival rate twice as high as those facilitated by LR. However, it entailed more complications, in addition to the inevitable risks to the donor. © 2014 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.
Dai Wing Chiu See ching Chan Kenneth siu ho Chok Tan to Cheung Sharr William Wei Albert chi yan Chan Tsang Simon Fung Ronnie Poon 范上达 Chung mau Lo
Background: This study aimed to investigate whether re-resection can achieve a good survival outcome in the treatment of recurrent liver metastases of colorectal cancer. Methods: Prospectively collected data of patients who underwent hepatectomy for liver tumours were reviewed. Patients whose liver tumours were metastases of colorectal cancer were included in the study provided that they had no extrahepatic metastases and received no loco-ablative treatment simultaneous with hepatectomy. Patients who did not have recurrent liver metastasis after their first liver resection (group R) and patients who underwent re-resection for recurrent liver metastasis (group RR) were compared. Results: In total, 321 patients were included in the study, with 307 in group R and 14 in group RR. The two groups had comparable demographics. Insignificantly more patients in group R received major resection (55.6% versus 30.8%, P = 0.079). The median blood loss volume was 0.6 (0-12.7) L in group R and 0.35 (0-15) L in group RR (P = 0.202). Group RR had a significantly smaller median tumour size (2.5 cm versus 3.5cm, P = 0.020) and resection margin width (0.3 cm versus 0.7cm, P = 0.037). On univariate analysis, re-resection was not a risk factor in overall survival. On multivariate analysis, post-operative complication (hazard ratio (HR) 1.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-2.39, P = 0.007), microscopic margin involvement (HR 1.95, 95% CI 1.26-3.04, P = 0.003) and multiple tumours (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.17-2.14, P = 0.003) were risk factors in overall survival. The two groups had no significant differences in disease-free survival and overall survival. Conclusion: Re-resection for recurrent colorectal liver metastases can achieve a favourable survival outcome at centres with expertise. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Kenneth siu ho Chok Tan to Cheung Albert chi yan Chan Dai Wing Chiu See ching Chan 范上达 Ronnie Poon Chung mau Lo
ANZ Journal of Surgery
Annals of Surgery
Background/Objective Donor right hepatectomy (DRH) was developed by master liver surgeons and has been applied in many liver transplant centers as the mainstay for adult living donor liver transplantation. It is a major and complex surgical operation performed on living liver donors for the benefit of liver recipients. The donors deserve the lowest though inevitable morbidity and mortality. In this study, the surgical outcomes of DRH performed by newer surgeons at an established center were studied to assess the transferability of the techniques of this standardized procedure. Methods We studied 450 consecutive DRHs performed by 11 surgeons. Three surgeons initiated and developed the transplant program and performed the first 200 DRHs (Era I). The role of chief surgeon in the following 250 DRHs (Era II) was gradually taken up by four newer surgeons with close guidance initially. Results Blood loss and operation time at the end of Era I versus the beginning of Era II were 251 vs. 341 mL and 391 vs. 497 minutes. The learning curve effect in Era I did not occur in Era II. The complication rates of the last 50 cases in Era I and Era II were 16% and 24%, respectively. Era I had one donor death whereas Era II had no donor death. Conclusion At an established center, DRH can be carried out safely by newer surgeons with good outcomes. Copyright © 2013, Asian Surgical Association. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC. All rights reserved.
See ching Chan Albert chi yan Chan Sharr William Wei Kenneth siu ho Chok Tan to Cheung 范上达 Chung mau Lo
Asian Journal of Surgery
Since the publication of the Tokyo Guidelines for the management of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis (TG07), diagnostic criteria and severity assessment criteria for acute cholangitis have been presented and extensively used as the primary standard all over the world. However, it has been found that there are crucial limitations in these criteria. The diagnostic criteria of TG07 do not have enough sensitivity and specificity, and its severity assessment criteria are unsuitable for clinical use. A working team for the revision of TG07 was organized in June, 2010, and these criteria have been updated through clinical implementation and its assessment by means of multi-center analysis. The diagnostic criteria of acute cholangitis have been revised as criteria to establish the diagnosis where cholestasis and inflammation demonstrated by clinical signs or blood test in addition to biliary manifestations demonstrated by imaging are present. The diagnostic criteria of the updated Tokyo Guidelines (TG13) have high sensitivity (87.6 %) and high specificity (77.7 %). TG13 has better diagnostic capacity than TG07. Severity assessment is classified as follows: Grade III: associated with organ failure; Grade II: early biliary drainage should be conducted; Grade1: others. As for the severity assessment criteria of TG07, separating Grade II and Grade I at the time of diagnosis was impossible, so they were unsuitable for clinical practice. Therefore, the severity assessment criteria of TG13 have been revised so as not to lose the timing of biliary drainage or treatment for etiology. Based on evidence, five predictive factors for poor prognosis in acute cholangitis - hyperbilirubinemia, high fever, leukocytosis, elderly patient and hypoalbuminemia - have been extracted. Grade II can be diagnosed if two of these five factors are present. Free full-text articles and a mobile application of TG13 are available via http://www.jshbps.jp/en/guideline/tg13.html. © 2012 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery and Springer.
Kiriyama Seiki Takada Tadahiro Steven martin Strasberg Solomkin Joseph S. Toshihiko Mayumi Pitt Henry A. Dirk joan Gouma Oliver james Garden Markus wolfgang Büchler Yokoe Masamichi Kimura Yasutoshi Tsuyuguchi Toshio Takao Itoi Yoshida Masahiro Miura Fumihiko Yuichi Yamashita Okamoto Kohji Toshifumi Gabata Hata Jiro Higuchi Ryota John Windsor Bornman Philippus C. 范上达 Singh Harijt de Santibanes Eduardo Gomi Harumi Kusachi Shinya Murata Atsuhiko Chen Xiao-Ping Jagannath Palepu Lee Sunggyu Padbury Robert Chen Miin-Fu Dervenis Christos Angus Chan Supe Avinash Liau Kui-Hin Kim Myung-Hwan Sunwhe Kim
Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences
Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is now accepted as a surgical procedure for acute cholecystitis when it is performed by an expert surgeon. There are several lines of strong evidence, such as randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses, supporting the introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy for patients with acute cholecystitis. The updated Tokyo Guidelines 2013 (TG13) describe the surgical treatment for acute cholecystitis according to the grade of severity, the timing, and the procedure used for cholecystitis in a question-and-answer format using the evidence concerning surgical management of acute cholecystitis. Methods and materials: Forty-eight publications were selected for a careful examination of their full texts, and the types of surgical management of acute cholecystitis were investigated using this evidence. The items concerning the surgical management of acute cholecystitis were the optimal surgical treatment for acute cholecystitis according to the grade of severity, optimal timing for the cholecystectomy, surgical procedure used for cholecystectomy, optimal timing of the conversion of cholecystectomy from laparoscopic to open surgery, and the complications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Results: There were eight RCTs and four meta-analyses concerning the optimal timing of the cholecystectomy. Consequently, it was found that cholecystectomy is preferable early after admission. There were three RCTs and two meta-analyses concerning the surgical procedure, which concluded that laparoscopic cholecystectomy is preferable to open procedures. Literature concerning the surgical treatment according to the grade of severity could not be quoted, because there have been no publications on this topic. Therefore, the treatment was determined based on the general opinions of professionals. Conclusion: Surgical management of acute cholecystitis in the updated TG13 is fundamentally the same as in the Tokyo Guidelines 2007 (TG07), and the concept of a critical view of safety and the existence of extreme vasculobiliary injury are added in the text to call the surgeon's attention to the need to reduce the incidence of bile duct injury. Free full-text articles and a mobile application of TG13 are available via http://www.jshbps.jp/en/guideline/tg13.html. © 2012 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery and Springer.
Yuichi Yamashita Takada Tadahiro Steven martin Strasberg Pitt Henry A. Dirk joan Gouma Oliver james Garden Markus wolfgang Büchler Gomi Harumi Dervenis Christos John Windsor Sunwhe Kim de Santibanes Eduardo Padbury Robert Chen Xiao-Ping Angus Chan 范上达 Jagannath Palepu Toshihiko Mayumi Yoshida Masahiro Miura Fumihiko Tsuyuguchi Toshio Takao Itoi Supe Avinash
Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences