The rapid advancement of intelligent wearable electronics imposes the emergent requirement for power sources that are deformable, compliant, and stretchable. Power sources with these characteristics are difficult and challenging to achieve. The use of liquid metals as electrodes may provide a viable strategy to produce such power sources. In this work, we propose a liquid-metal-based triboelectric nanogenerator (LM-TENG) by employing Galinstan as the electrode and silicone rubber as the triboelectric and encapsulation layer. The small Young's modulus of the liquid metal ensures the electrode remains continuously conductive under deformations, stretching to a strain as large as ∼300%. The surface oxide layer of Galinstan effectively prevents the liquid Galinstan electrode from further oxidization and permeation into silicone rubber, yielding outstanding device stability. Operating in the single-electrode mode at 3 Hz, the LM-TENG with an area of 6 × 3 cmproduces an open-circuit voltage of 354.5 V, transferred short-circuit charge of 123.2 nC, short-circuit current of 15.6 μA, and average power density of 8.43 mW/m, which represent outstanding performance values for TENGs. Further, the LM-TENG maintains stable performance under various deformations, such as stretching, folding, and twisting. LM-TENGs in different forms, such as bulk-shaped, bracelet-like, and textile-like, are all able to harvest mechanical energy from human walking, arm shaking, or hand patting to sustainably drive wearable electronic devices.
Yang Yanqin Sun Na Zhen Wen Cheng Ping Zheng Hechuang Shao Huiyun Xia Yujian Chen Chen Lan Huiwen Xie Xinkai Zhou Changjie Zhong Jun Xuhui Sun 李述汤